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“Life Is Not for Sale!”: Confronting Free Trade and Intellectual Property in Costa Rica

Pearson, Thomas W.

American Anthropologist, March 2013, Vol.115(1), pp.58-71 [Tạp chí có phản biện]

ISSN: 0002-7294 ; E-ISSN: 1548-1433 ; DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1433.2012.01535.x

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  • Nhan đề:
    “Life Is Not for Sale!”: Confronting Free Trade and Intellectual Property in Costa Rica
  • Tác giả: Pearson, Thomas W.
  • Chủ đề: [ ; Free Trade ; Social Movements ; Citizenship And Democracy ; ] ; [ ; Libre Comercio ; Movimientos Sociales ; Ciudadanía Y Democracia ; ]
  • Là 1 phần của: American Anthropologist, March 2013, Vol.115(1), pp.58-71
  • Mô tả: Expansion of intellectual property rights (IPR) regimes has been achieved in part through bilateral free‐trade agreements. This process, however, has not gone uncontested. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Costa Rica, in this article I examine a conflict over IPR in the context of a social movement against the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). I focus specifically on reforms that have set the stage for the private appropriation of biodiversity, plant varieties, and other biological materials. Environmentalists have struggled against these reforms since the mid‐1990s, and during the confrontation over CAFTA they positioned “defense of life itself” as a key issue for the social movement. Activists challenged the legal constitution of seeds, biodiversity, and other biological materials as objects of IPR by ideologically situating life outside of commodity exchange and as part of the collective property of the nation. La expansión de los regímenes de derechos de propiedad intelectual (IPR) ha sido lograda en parte a través de tratados bilaterales de libre comercio. Este proceso, sin embargo, no ha ocurrido sin oposición. Con base en trabajo de campo etnográfico en Costa Rica, en este artículo examino un conflicto sobre IPR en el contexto de un movimiento social en contra del Tratado de Libre Comercio con Centroamérica (CAFTA). Me concentro específicamente en reformas que han creado el marco para la apropiación de la biodiversidad, las variedades de plantas, y otros materiales biológicos. Los ambientalistas han luchado contra estas reformas desde mediados de los 1990s, y durante la confrontación sobre el CAFTA posicionaron “la defensa de la vida misma” como una cuestión central para el movimiento social. Los activistas retaron la constitución legal de las semillas, la biodiversidad y otros materiales biológicos como objetos de IPR, a través de situar ideológicamente la vida por fuera del intercambio de mercancías y como parte de la propiedad colectiva de la nación.
  • Số nhận dạng: ISSN: 0002-7294 ; E-ISSN: 1548-1433 ; DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1433.2012.01535.x

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