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Visceral leishmaniasis in selected communities of Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts in Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia: Sero-epidemological and Leishmanin Skin Test Surveys.(Research Article)(Report)

Bekele, Fitsum ; Belay, Tariku ; Zeynudin, Ahmed ; Hailu, Asrat

PLoS ONE, May 24, 2018, Vol.13(5), p.e0197430 [Tạp chí có phản biện]

ISSN: 1932-6203 ; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197430

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  • Nhan đề:
    Visceral leishmaniasis in selected communities of Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts in Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia: Sero-epidemological and Leishmanin Skin Test Surveys.(Research Article)(Report)
  • Tác giả: Bekele, Fitsum ; Belay, Tariku ; Zeynudin, Ahmed ; Hailu, Asrat
  • Chủ đề: Prevalence Studies (Epidemiology) -- Research ; Parasitic Diseases -- Risk Factors ; Parasitic Diseases -- Research ; Epidemiology -- Research
  • Là 1 phần của: PLoS ONE, May 24, 2018, Vol.13(5), p.e0197430
  • Mô tả: Background Visceral leishmaniasis [VL] is a debilitating parasitic disease which invariably kills untreated patients. The disease is caused by Leishmania (L.) donovani or L. infantum, and transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies. VL often remains subclinical but can become symptomatic with an acute/subacute or chronic course. Globally, the Eastern Africa region is one of the main VL endemic areas. The disease is prevalent in numerous foci within Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan South Sudan, and Uganda. In Ethiopia, the Lower Omo plain is one of the many VL endemic regions. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasisin Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts of the South Omo plains where VL is becoming an emerging health problem of neglected communities. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 between 25th of July and 14.sup.th of August. A total of 1682 individuals living in 404 households were included in the study. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from each of the participants and venous blood was also collected for the detection of antibodies to visceral leishmaniasis using Direct Agglutination Test. Leishmanin Skin Test was performed to detect the exposure to the parasite. Results The surveys included 14 villages located in areas where VL had been reported. In a study population of 1682 individuals, the overall positive leishmanian skin test and sero-prevalence rates respectively were 8.6% and 1.8%. A statistically significant variation in the rate of positive LST response was observed in different study sites and age groups. Positive LST response showed an increasing trend with age. The sero-prevalence rate also showed a statistically significant variation among different study sites. Higher rates of sero-prevalence were observed in children and adolescents. The LST and sero-prevalence rates in Hamar District exceeded significantly that of Banna-Tsamai District (10.7% versus 5.8% for LST; and 2.6% versus 0.7% for sero-prevalence). Conclusion The prevalence of asymptomatic VL infection in Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts during the study period in 2013 was low compared to rates previously reported in other endemic areas of Ethiopia. This could be due to the fact that the disease is emerging in Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts. Based on records of a nearby Hospital, increasing numbers of active VL cases have been reported in these districts through the years 2006-2012, especially in Hamar District. Both districts are important destinations of tourism, and thus the importance of surveillance should be emphasized. Detailed epidemiological and entomological studies are recommended.
  • Ngôn ngữ: English
  • Số nhận dạng: ISSN: 1932-6203 ; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197430

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